14. awareness of the international avant-garde
In the same year as the publication of the Manifesto on Futurism (1909) by Marinetti, Ardengo Soffici wrote for La Voce the article L’Impressionismo e la pittura italiana. On his return from Paris, the Tuscan painter acted as a spokesman for the renewal of art culture, focusing on his knowledge of Cézanne and contemporary French culture, and on the choice of subjects referring to an archaic world. The influence of the French art he promoted is also discernable in the dynamic, futurist early work of Baccio Maria Bacci, in Ferruccio Ferrazzi’s lively fauve colourist output, Mario Nannini’s cubist paintings, and in Severo Pozzati’s Cézannesque landscapes, akin to contemporary pieces by Braque and Picasso. The young Primo Conti, another undisputed protagonist of Florentine Futurism, was equally au fait with the international avant-garde, producing volumetric, synthetic and experimental paintings. The Tuscan avant-garde was distinguished by this variety of response: Florentine Futurism withdrew irremediably from Milanese Futurism after the publication of an article in Lacerba untitled Futurismo e Marinettismo, in which Soffici, Papini and Palazzeschi laid claim to the autonomy and alterity of Futurism in Florence.